Название: Английский язык - Методические указания (И.П. Брованова)

Жанр: Гуманитарные

Просмотров: 1108


And graduation

When the candidate’s Dissertation Committee judges that the dissertation is complete, it must be defended orally in a final dissertation defense. At least two weeks in advance of the final dissertation defense, an abstract of the dissertation should be submitted to the Doctoral al Programs Office and announcement will be made to all academic units regarding the scheduling of the candidate’s dissertation defense. While any interested faculty member or graduate student may attend the examination and participate in the discussion, only those individuals who are members of the candidate’s Dissertation Committee may vote on the dissertation’s approval or disapproval. Upon successful defense of the dissertation, a dissertation defense approval form will be signed by the members of the Dissertation Committee and submitted to the Doctoral Programs Office. Unanimous approval is required.

Six weeks prior to graduation, the candidate must submit to the Doctoral Programs Office a copy of the dissertation the candidate believes is in final form. After the Assistant Director of Doctor Programs has reviewed the dissertation and the final oral has been held, the candidate will make any recommended change to the dissertation. For graduation, three final copies of the dissertation must be submitted to the Doctoral Programs Office.

 

1. Comprehension Check

 

1. What do the doctoral programs seek to develop in the student?

2. What do the doctoral programs require the student to demonstrate?

3. How many doctoral programs does the College of Business Administration offer?  What are these?

4. What criteria are admission decisions based on?

5. What are letters of recommendation intended for?

6.  What admission test should applicants for Ph.D. in Business Administration and Economics pass?

7. What is the purpose of the dissertation?

8. Who should the student discuss the potential dissertation topic with? What is the purpose of this discussion?

9. What should the student dissertation proposal include?

10. When is the student admitted to the candidacy for the degree?

11. When is an abstract of the dissertation submitted?

12. Who may vote on the dissertation approval or disapproval during the procedure of the final dissertation defense?

 

2. Speech Practice

 

Speak about Doctoral programs in Business Administration and Economics at the college of Business Administration, Georgia State University with special emphasis on the major fields.

Give a talk about dissertation proposal defense and final dissertation defense at the College of Business Administration, Georgia State University.

Speak about Cand. Sc. (Doctoral) programs and dissertation defense in Russian universities.

 

Helpful Vocabulary

 

Doctoral programs; Ph.D. in…; major fields; candidacy for the degree; dissertation proposal defense; Dissertation Committee chair; review of literature; data sources; time frame; completion of the dissertation; abstract of the dissertation; candidate; vote on dissertations’ approval/ disapproval; unanimous approval.

 

Postgraduate and Research programmes, the University of Sunderland, UK

 

Lifelong learning is, increasingly, playing a part in people’s working lives. In an era when learning is highly valued, postgraduate studies have a vital role – sparking innovation and preparing key workers for the challenges ahead in a fast-moving technological world.

At the University of Sunderland they believe it  essential that their taught postgraduate programmes relate to current professional practice as appropriate. And students find such programmes more rewarding. The overall aim of every Masters programme is to contribute to personal growth, and, where relevant, to improve employability by creating deeper subject knowledge and by building professional expertise and skills.  Achieving a postgraduate qualification requires a great deal of work and ability. But the rewards in terms of personal and job satisfaction make  the effort worthwhile. The programmes are designed to be flexible where possible. The University offers full-time and part-time programmes. It also offers study by distance learning. This is particularly suited to people such as international students who are unable to attend the University, but who want to gain a qualification by working on the specially prepared programme material sent to them.

Full-time postgraduate programmes normally last for one year, countered as 48 weeks. Part-time programmes are based around evening or one-day-a-week attendance and last for 2 or 3 years. Many programmes are divided into modules, where a specific subject is studied in-depth for a number of weeks and a project or assessment completed before progressing to another subject in the programme.  In general, the timetable pattern will involve formal lectures, seminars, tutorials and workshops, as well as other work such as essays, research, or preparatory reading.

 

Postgraduate Programmes in Computing

 

MSc Computer-Based Information Systems

(also available by centre based distance learning)

 

This programme will enhance the computer skills and career prospects of those with existing qualifications in non-computing disciplines. Experience in computing is not a requirement for admission. The programme provides a wide range of theoretical and practical skills of relevance to modern organisations. These include the knowledge and skills to specify, design, implement, document and furnish an effective computer-based information system. The programme takes 1 year of full-time study and typically 3 years of part-time study.

The project phase of the programme lasts 5 months for full-time students and one year for part-time students. Projects are sponsored by local industry and community organisations, and you will be required to develop practical products with real benefits for the sponsoring organisations. Seminars from both academic and industrial researchers keep full-time students up-to-date with the latest developments in relevant fields.

 

       Career Opportunities

Recent graduates now have careers in such areas as academic and industrial research, health service management, multimedia authoring, accountancy, systems analysis, and programming.

Content

Stage 1 – Postgraduate Certificate

Computer and Research Skills  ∙  Application Building  ∙  Systems Development  ∙  Networks and Computer Hardware  ∙  Software Environments

Stage 2 – Postgraduate Diploma

Object Orientation   ∙  Relational Database Systems   ∙   Systems Engineering   ∙   Options ∙    Software Construction   ∙   Applied Knowledge Engineering

 

Stage 3 – Masters

Project

 

Teaching and Assessment

 

Teaching is via negotiated learning, project work, seminars and tutorials, group work and lectures. Assessment is based on report writing , time-constrained assessments, group presentations and assignments, seminar presentations, self and peer assessment and the project.

 

Entry Requirements

 

Applications are welcome from holders of an honours degree in a non-computing discipline; candidates with other backgrounds and experience will also be considered. There is flexibility in entry points, enabling students with some computing experience to update their professional skills.

 

MSc Software Engineering

 

This advanced Masters programme will enable you to act immediately as a professional software engineer. It is directly geared towards the needs of industry, concentrating on the core concepts of the software engineering discipline. In addition, it builds upon the substantial expertise (both research and practitioner) that exists within the school; you will gain a knowledge of current best practices and explore the latest research. During the project phase, which constitutes one third of the programme, you will devise, plan, control and execute a substantial software engineering project that has a real benefit for a sponsoring industrial or community organisation. The programme takes 1 year of full-time study and 3 years of part-time study.

 

Career Opportunities

There is an acknowledged shortage of highly skilled software engineers, both nationally and globally. On successful completion of this programme you will have an opportunity to progress into a variety of careers  such as software development, consultancy, marketing, technical support and research.

 

Content

 

Stage 1 – Postgraduate Certificate

Core modules: ∙  Research   ∙   Ethical, Professional and Legal Issues   ∙   Advanced Object Oriented Development   ∙   Software Engineering Tools and Environments ∙    Software Production Measurement and Control   ∙   Database Systems Engineering   ∙   Project Proposal

 

Stage 2 – Postgraduate Diploma

Choose one of four pathways:

a) Technical Software Engineering  ∙  Formal Methods in Software Engineering   ∙ Concurrent and Distributed Software Systems

b) Socio-technical Software Engineering: ∙ Interactive Systems Development  ∙  Method Engineering

c) Computational Intelligence:  ∙ Knowledge Based Systems  ∙ Engineering and Adaptive Systems

d) Management of Software Engineering:  ∙ IT Project Management  ∙ plus two half-modules  ∙ Information System Strategy  ∙ IT Quality Management

 

Stage 3 – Masters

Project

 

Teaching and Assessment

 

Lectures are supported by independent study, project work, seminars, tutorials, resource-based material and group work. Assessment is based on individual written reports and papers, practical assignments, discussions, seminar presentations, exams and the Masters project. Examinations are an important means of assessment.

Entry Requirements

Applications are welcome from holders of a good honours degree in a computing discipline. Other backgrounds and experiences will also be considered.

Vocabulary Notes

 

Postgraduate study (Br.E) cf. Graduate study (AmE)

MSc (Br.E) cf. MS (AmE)

Programme (Br.E)  cf. Program (AmE)

 

Comprehension Check

 

What essential  principle is the University of Sunderland guided by in its activity?

What forms of training are offered to postgraduate students in Sunderland?

How long does study in these programmes last ?

What patterns of teaching does the timetable involve in Sunderland?

What is the structure (content) of the programmes offered in Computing?

Who sponsors the projects?

What are students required to do during the project phase?

What career opportunities are open for postgraduate students after receiving their MSc degrees?

What are the necessary entry requirments?

 

Speech Practice

 

Compare the programmes in Computing offered in Sunderland and in NSTU. Do these universities offer similar curricula in Computer-Based Information Systems and  Software Engineering programmes? Are the same subjects of study included? Is  the structure of the programmes similar? What is different?

Graduate Research School in Sunderland

Research at the University of Sunderland is supported and given structure by the Graduate Research School (GRS). The GRS primary goal is the development of excellence, both in Sunderland’s established areas of strength and in the development of ground-breaking new initiatives. A major emphasis is the promotion of multidisciplinary approaches to issues of national and international importance. The GRS partly comprises office personnel; other members of the GRS include all academic staff engaged in research and in supervision of research students, and all research staff (including research assistants, technicians, postdoctoral fellows, visiting professors and visiting researchers). The role of the GRS is to:

Administer research degree programmes

Arrange the taught element in all research degree programmes

Formulate an overall University research policy and strategy, and monitor research performance

Promote interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research, providing links to any other programmes in the University relevant to research

Organise research seminars to allow leading researchers to share their knowledge and experience in Sunderland

Conduct sessions on staff development, career development, proposal writing workshops and seminar events

Provide information to staff and students on research funding opportunities

Publish promotional information for University and other audiences, including an annual research report and research directory.

 

Much research at the University of Sunderland is interdisciplinary. There are a large number of research groups, many of which are clustered in generally understood subject areas, among which are, for example, business and management, computer science, engineering, mathematical sciences, philosophy, social policy, sociology and applied social sciences, etc.

 

Engineering

 

The focus in Engineering is on highly relevant, challenging research of a consistently high standard that embraces many of the technologies identified by numerous governmental and industrial surveys. The diverse range of research in Sunderland is integrated around five cross-disciplinary research groups:

 

Automotive Ergonomics

 

This group specilises in automotive ergonomics for passenger safety, with additional emphasis on mobility of the disabled. This involves research in human factors related to automotive areas, specifically telematic systems, driver function, safety, disability, mobility and adaptability. We are the recognised European leader in this important field and currently hold the largest grant to be awarded by the EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) Land Transport programme. Additional major funding has also been secured via Sunderland Healthcare Trust in order to establish a regional mobility unit specialising in equal-mobility for arthritic population groups.

 

Advanced Network Simulation and Optimisation

 

This group has a close working relationship with BT Worldwide Networks and is seeking to determine near optimal structures for national telephone networks. Our students rely on evolutionary computing using genetic algorithms and genetic ptogramming. Separately, the group is also researching the application of neural networks; examples of problems under investigation include fault analysis in power system networks, image processing, and database design for medical applications.

 

Control Engineering

 

Research by the Control Systems Group encompasses the modelling, simulation, analysis and design of intelligent control systems. Two EU projects (VISION and MONCCADS) are presently being supported in collaboration with the centre for Adaptive Systems and a substantial EPSRC award has recently been obtained. We are becoming recognised for our research into water treatment problems; our partners in this important area include Northumbrain Water, Yorkshire Water, North West Warter and Thames Water. Staff interests embrace genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic modelling and control, and artificial neural networks.

 

Robotics and Automation

 

This is a new but rapidly developing area of research. One field of expertise is real-time software related to force control for semi- and fully autonomous robots and other automated systems, including fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy methods. A second field of interest is robotic grasping and manipulation, with the aim being to develop new handling and manipulating strategies for parcel wrapping in the cosmetic industries. Funding has been obtained from EPSRC, Unilever and British Aerospace.

 

Institute for Automotive and Manufacturing Advanced Practice

(AMAP)

 

AMAP promotes a holistic approach to manufacturing industry in which the importance of technical, business and people issues are all recognised as essential for successful development. From the outset, AMAP has been developed in collaboration with industry and its activities are steered by a board containing director-level industrialists from major North East companies.

The Institue has an established research base in ergonomics of the driving environment. This centres mainly on the assessment of driver ability, the design and engineering of driver assessment  rigs and adaptation equipment for the elderly and disabled drivers. Current research, funded by a major EPSRC award, also includes the use of telematic systems to enhance driver ability.

 

Computer Science

 

The Computer Science Research Unit’s prime aim is to undertake highly relevant and academically challenging applied research in collaboration with partners from industry, commerce and the public sector. Based on purpose-built facilities, the Unit has an increasing international profile reflected in the large number of papers in leading journals and ever growing requests to make presentations at major international conferences.

Underlining the international dimension, the Unit also enjoys links with many academic institutions and companies throughout Europe and worldwide.

 

Decision Support Systems

 

The focus in this area is improved decision making, productivity and efficiency achieved through the application of simulation, soft operational research, expert systems and Bayesian analysis. Work has included the development of user-friendly systems for belief modelling in complex systems, and has involved extensive collaboration with manufacturing companies throughout Europe. Recent developments have been in the area of modelling complex systems such as economic and business sytems, and studies to extend cybernetic principles to improve decision making.

 

Intelligent Systems

 

Work in this area has included the development of novel methodologies and techniques in the fields of hybrid systems, neural networks, adaptive systems, genetic algorithms, natural language engineering and expert systems. These methods are being applied to a wide variety of problems including machine health monitoring, forecasting, scheduling, and intelligent information systems. The group has a large number of projects funded by EPSRC and the EU. Much of this work takes place in the Centre for Adaptive Systems, which is working on applied problems with partners from business and industry.

 

Software Engineering fot Organisations

 

A ‘seamless’ approach to software fabrication and maintenance is being developed by our research in the production of quality software and the integration of system development methodologies. Our work encompasses reverse engineering, standards, metrics, CASE tools and the formalism of semi-formal approaches. The Centre for Electronic Commerce has a large number of funded projects, which are developing the methods and techniques that will be used for electronic trading in the future.

 

Human Computer Systems

 

This group is advancing the way in which humans interact with computer systems. The research work encompasses novel approaches to human-computer interaction, projects for users with special needs, telematics, multimedia and computer-aided learning. The strength of the group lies in the way in which it can draw from a range of specialists in a number of areas including hypertext navigation, user interface engineering and multimedia design. For example, the CAFE-MONDIAL project is funded under the Telematics programme to produce a communications infrastructure to facilitate training in rural areas across Europe.

 

Image Analysis and Retrieval

 

A growing area of interest is the School is image analysis and retrieval, which is drawing together staff from across the other groups. Five members of staff and three PhD students are now working in the area.

Comprehension Check

What does the Graduate Research School (GRS) place a major emphasis on?

Who provides research and academic acrivities of the GRS?

What cross-disciplinary groups is research in engineering integrated around?

What are specific research interests of each of the five groups?

What is the prime aim of the Computer Science Research Unit?

Where do research groups in engineering and computer science obtain funding from?

What degree is awarded to postgraduate students on successful completion of the progtammes?

 

Discussion Questions

What are characteristic features of research conducted at the Graduate Research School?

Can we say that research work carried in NSTU follows similar lines and is based on the same principles and approaches?

What are the main sources of funding research in NSTU?

 

Speech Practice

 

Describe the role of the Graduate Research School at Sunderland University. Speak on the administrative, academic and research activities of   the GRS staff.

 

Helpful Vocabulary

 

Interdisciplinary research; user- and customer-oriented; highly relevant and challenging applied research; in collaboration with partners from industry, commerce and the public sector; research projects; funded by; research sponsors; results and achievements; leading journals; make presentations.

 

Section II

Exchange in the Field of Education and Research

Preamble

 

The undersigned Rectors of European Universities, gathered in Bologna for the ninth centenary of the oldest University in Europe, four years before the definitive abolition of boundaries between the countries of the European Community; looking forward to far-reaching co-operation between all European nations and believing that peoples and States should become more than ever aware of the part that universities will be called upon to play in a changing and increasingly international society,

 

Consider –

 

that at the approaching end of this millennium the future of mankind depends largely on cultural, scientific and technical development; and that this is built up in centres of culture, knowledge and research as represented by true universities;

that the universities’ task of spreading knowledge among the younger generations implies that, in today’s world, they must also serve society as a whole; and that the cultural. social and economic future of society requires, in particular, a considerable investment in continuing education;

that universities must give future generations education and training that will teach them, and through them others, to respect the great harmonies of their natural environment and of life itself.

 

The undersigned Rectors of European universities proclaim to all States and to the conscience of all nations the fundamental principles which must, now and always, support the vocation of universities.

 

Fundamental principles

 

The university is an autonomous institution at the heart of societies differently organized because of geography and historical heritage; it produces, examines, appraises and hands down culture by research and teaching.

To meet the needs of the world around it, its research and teaching must be morally and intellectually independent of all political authority and economic power.

Teaching and research in universities must be inseparable if their tution is not to lag behind changing needs, the demands of society, and advances in scientific knowledge.

Freedom in research and training is the fundamental principle of university life, and governments and universities must ensure respect for this fundamental requirement.

Rejecting intolerance and always open to dialogue, a university is an ideal meeting-ground for teachers capable of imparting their knowledge and well equipped to develop it by research and innovation and students entitled, able and willing to enrich their minds with that knowledge.

A university is the trustee of the European humanist tradition; its constant care is to attain universal knowledge; to fulfil its vocation it transcends geographical and political frontiers, and affirms the vital need for different cultures to know and influence each other.

 

The means

 

To attain these goals by following such principles calls for effective means, suitable to present conditions.

 

To preserve freedom in research and teaching, the instruments appropriate to realize that freedom must be made available to all members of the university community.

Recruitment of teachers, and regulation of their status, must obey the principle that research is inseparable from teaching.

Each university must – with due allowance for particular circumstances – ensure that its students’ freedoms are safeguarded, and that they enjoy conditions in which they can acquire the culture and training which it is their purpose to possess.

Universities – particularly in Europe – regard the mutual exchange of information and documentation, and frequent joint projects for the advancement of learning, as essential to the steady progress of knowledge.

 

Therefore, as in the earliest years of their history, they encourage mobility among teachers and students; furthermore, they consider a general policy of equivalent status, titles, examinations (without prejudice to national diplomas) and award of scholarships essential to the fulfilment of their mission in the conditions prevailing today.

The undersigned Rectors, on behalf of their Universities, undertake to do everything in their power to encourage each State, as well as the supranational organizations concerned, to mould their policy sedulously on this Magna Charta, which expresses the universities’ unanimous desire freely determined and declared.

 

Bologna, 18 September 1988.

 

Discussion questions

 

What is the major focus made on in the Magna Charta adopted in Bologna?

Why do you think the issues mentioned in the Bologna Charta are also significant for Russian universities?

Novosibirsk Technical University's Profile in the Light of the Bologna Process

Introduction

 

In 1988, realising an urgent need for a large-scale reformation of the European university system, presidents (rectors) of hundreds of European universities adopted the Magna Charta Universitatum (MchU) in which they proclaimed the fundamental principles of universities and appealed to the governments of European countries to reform the legislation and normative bases of these countries. These changes are intended to create a common educational environment, i.e. the All-European University. On 18 September 2002, the Rector of NSTU on behalf of the University took part in the ceremony of signing the Magna Charta Universitatum. By signing this document the University has committed itself to promoting and contributing to this process. In the present paper we will try to prove the compliance of NSTU with the principles of the Bologna process.

1. Bologna Process

For about ten years Ministries of Education of European countries had been discussing the feasibility of implementing certain principles of MchU. It became obvious that a lot of difficulties would be encountered in the process of national education systems unification. Nevertheless, everybody understood that it was vital to start the reform. In 1998, education ministers of 29 countries adopted the Bologna declaration that outlined the format of the forthcoming reform. Since that time the process of transformation has been in steady progress. Below the four principles of MchU are discussed.

 

I. University is a Centre of Science, Education and Culture

 

Strictly speaking all Russian universities comply with this principle. However, we understand clearly that because of specific conditions of the development of Russian universities we will have to do a great deal to educate a new generation of teachers, administrators and students to truly comply with this principle.

 

II. The Inseparability of Teaching and Research

 

Unfortunately, the Russian legislation has actually legalised the separation of teaching and research.

There exist two laws in Russia: the education law and the science law. That is why Russian universities are not subjects of research activities. This complicated problem that is crucial for universities cannot be resolved within one university.

It is essential that the science law should grant the status of a research institution to universities as soon as possible. It is also vital to settle the question concerning the merger of the institutes of the Russian Academy of Science (RAS) and Russian universities, as they are jointly involved in the same activity. Research and teaching enlighten people, develop their creativity and enrich their knowledge. The separation of RAS scientists from students weakens their potential, which results in inefficient use of scarce funds that the Federal government allocates for research.

The Administration of NSTU promotes joint research of the University and the institutes of the Siberian Branch of the RAS (SB RAS).

Over 100 D.Sc. degree holders of SD RAS work as teachers in the University on a par with dozens of joint laboratories and NSTU department branches set up in the SD RAC institutes. A number of NSTU training programmes are fully implemented in the SB RAS institutes. However, this does not help solve all problems related to the inseparability of teaching and research.

 

III.  Freedom in Research and Teaching

 

This principle forms the cornerstone in the process decentralisation of research, training and economic management in NSTU. Every researcher and teacher is free in choosing the field of research that is approved at the department and is part of their work. The main responsibility of the Administration is to provide conditions for this activity. On the other hand, the University expects the outcome of this work to be presented as papers, textbooks, monographs and R&D contracts with industry, as well as  research grants received from the Federal Government and from foreign sources. A scheme of material and moral incentives to stimulate this process has been elaborated in NSTU. Many years' experience gained in the University shows that methods of tough authoritarian management of research activities have never brought any sustained and long-term positive results.

Teachers are free to choose their own teaching methods and techniques in order to achieve the major goal - high quality of training. Among numerous standards existing for evaluating the quality of education the learner's satisfaction is one of the most essential criteria. The evaluation system of education quality by students that has been developed and widely practised at NSTU fully complies with this requirement. Surveys of students conducted at NSTU are aimed to tackle the following two tasks:

a) help teachers see their shortcomings and remove them as well as  improve their skills through the system of advanced training;

b) provide sound grounds for dismissing incompetent and unqualified  teaching staff. 

The system of quality management being developed at NSTU will make it possible to co-ordinate all activities at the University, involve a greater number of staff in management, lessen negative consequences caused by resigning of some research advisers and academic leaders. It will also facilitate and accelerate training of young staff members engaged in management.

 

IV. A university is the trustee of the European humanist tradition; its constant care is to attain universal knowledge; it affirms the vital need for different cultures to know and influence each other

 

The NSTU emblem has the words "Docendo discimus" written on it. It implies that while teaching others we learn ourselves. In so doing a teacher must be able and willing to gain new knowledge through doing research, writing papers and monographs, etc. They must strive to learn how to impart this knowledge to students efficiently by developing teaching materials and using innovative information technologies. No less important is the ability to properly design curricula and syllabuses of courses offered at the University. Teaching staff members can acquire all the above skills within the University. However, an opportunity for teaching staff members to go on study trips to master these skills in leading European universities is an important component in the system of enriching their minds with new knowledge. Over the past three years more than 300 teachers of NSTU have taken this opportunity.

After getting the status of university in 1993, the Novosibirsk Technical University introduced a two-level system of training. It was not easy to implement and necessitated changing teachers' approach to the design of curricula and syllabuses as well as developing new teaching materials and updating equipment and facilities. A lot of normative documents and regulations have been drawn up including the Act on Boards conferring the M.Sc. degree and the Act on the selection of candidates to M. Sc. programmes. In addition, while studying in the M. Sc. programme graduate students are given an opportunity to take examinations in a foreign language, philosophy and a major that are necessary for those who plan to enter a PhD programme. While studying in the M. Sc. Programme these graduate students may also spend some time on collecting materials for their PhD thesis. The experience gained over ten years has proved the efficiency of this system, which made it possible to increase the number of graduate students enrolled in the postgraduate programme and helped attract young teachers to work at the University.

 (По материалам статьи проф. А.С. Вострикова и проф. Ю.А. Афанасьева)

 

Discussion Questions

 

Why is the issue of large-scale reforms in the Russian higher education system so vital at present?

Have any effective measures been taken to improve the quality of training in NSTU?

Which function of any institution of higher learning – to train specialists or to do research – is more important?

Do you agree that quite a few departments in NSTU are facing a pressing problem – the ageing of teaching staff? Why do you think younger people do not want to teach students at the University?

How can participation of Russian universities in the Bologna process help Russia join the European education and research community? How can they benefit from this co-operation?

 

Speech Practice

 

Think and tell the group about the difficulties your department is experiencing in training students and in conducting research. Can you think of any ways to solve these problems?

 

US Universities and Research Centers

Finding and Arranging Opportunities

There are many avenues by which scholars, researchers and faculty can come as temporary academic visitors to the United States. University departments often have invitation positions, usually a year in length, for visiting scholars, researchers or lecturers. To be invited as a visiting scholar or visiting lecturer, a candidate must be a recognized authority in the field. If you have an outstanding reputation as a researcher or have personal or professional contacts with US faculty, you may be able to arrange a special invitation position.

Visiting Professors and Lecturers

One of the most common structures for organizing postdoctoral experience in the United States is through a faculty exchange or visiting professorship. In working on a temporary basis" with faculty or researchers at universities in the US, you will need to be aware of constraints and pressures on academics, as well as the underlying structure of the faculty system.

In almost every academic institution, faculties are organized into departments occasionally into multi-disciplinary centers for focus on a certain academic area. Each department operates independently, headed by a department chair, under broad university guidelines. Faculty members of a department usually choose their own department chair, either a senior member of the department, or occasionally someone from outside the university. In many cases, the position of department chair rotates from one department member to another, changing every three or four years. In other cases, the department chair remains as long as other faculty members agree. The department acts as a democratic body, determining requirements for degrees (within broad limits set by the university), admitting graduate students, deciding whether degree candidates qualify, choosing teaching assistants, determining curriculum, and hiring new faculty by participation of all members. In some departments real power lies with the whole group, more than with the chair as an individual. In others, the chair is more powerful.

Faculty titles denote academic rank. In ascending order, they are Lecturer (or Instructor), Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and Professor. Except in the case of very distinguished senior professors, most faculty members address each other by first names and do not use these titles in conversation.

Lecturers and Assistant Professors have a full teaching load — usually two classes that meet three times a week with a laboratory or perhaps three classes without a laboratory. In addition, they may have one or more committee assignments (the curriculum committee, the honors committee, etc.), which take several hours per week. Added to this are grading time, as well as time for conferences with students, not to mention the many hours of research and writing necessary to build a scholarly reputation.

Under the system of promotion current in most university departments, an Assistant Professor has five to seven years to gain "tenure". At the end of this time, a committee of peers (other university faculty) votes whether or not to recommend tenure for an Assistant Professor. One of the most important considerations is the faculty member's research and publication record. Tenure is a guarantee that he or she will remain employed by the university until retirement, unless the institution suffers extreme budget cuts or the person commits a serious moral offense. Faculty members can still lose their jobs if the department is eliminated. In most cases granting tenure carries with it an almost automatic promotion to Associate Professor.                          

The purpose of the tenure system is to preserve academic freedom, to prevent an institution from firing a professor for making unpopular or radical statements or advocating unorthodox ideas. Today, with tight university budgets, the effects of the tenure system have put strong pressure on Assistant Professors to succeed early.

What difference does this system make to visiting scholars and researchers? If you are given a one year appointment as Visiting Assistant Professor or Lecturer, you will make similar commitments of time and fulfill similar teaching loads. If your faculty collaborator is working toward tenure, you may find that he or she has little extra time available for collaboration. In centers or institutes devoted entirely to research, however, investigators often have fewer distractions from research.

Faculty in the United States tend to identify first with colleagues in their academic field and second with their institution, except in smaller colleges at which teaching is the primary activity. This is perhaps a consequence of the emphasis on research and publication record as a measure of success.

Faculty salaries are lower than salaries at comparable levels of business or industry, ranging from an average of approximately $26,000 for a Lecturer to about $50,000 for a Professor, with an overall average of $41,000. Faculty salaries in engineering are 21\% higher than the average. Many faculty members serve as consultants to business, industry, and government, both as a source of outside income and a stimulus for professional development.

Senior faculty members sometimes hold joint appointments with part-time teaching responsibilities and part-time administrative responsibilities. Often administrative duties reduce the time and energy available for effective research.

Relationships with Students

In the university setting, faculty interactions with students are informal. Often graduate students and faculty become close friends and work together. U.S. educational philosophy stresses analysis and critical thinking in addition to mastery of information. Classes are formatted to support the stimulation of ideas. Students do not hesitate to challenge professors in class; in fact, most professors encourage it as a sign of intellectual independence. Encouragement of questioning, however, does not mean that professors lack respect from students. Despite informality, students and faculty maintain a certain personal distance, with students deferring to faculty members. Faculty members usually construct their own examinations and papers for their courses, unless the course has a very high enrollment.

Research Centers

Some universities are research centers; others are not. Research and scholarly activity take place in many kinds of institutions besides universities; Often visiting scholars, researchers, and faculty come to private or public research centers.

Most research institutions are administratively organized by field, with both an administrative and scientific/technical head for each department, in some cases the same person. Researchers may work together as part of a team or independently, but all have some administrative relationship to the department. Grants management staff monitor expenses on the grant, and the principal investigator is usually responsible for an annual grant report. Quite often a foreign researcher establishes an arrangement with a particular research center that focuses on his or her area of research and obtains a grant from public or private sources to work there as principal investigator for the grant.

Institutional Linkages

In recent years many US universities have signed reciprocal agreements with institutions in other countries to exchange faculty and researchers for a period of one to three years. The USIA University Affiliation Program provides an important stimulus for such arrangements.

Other Arrangements

Scholars and researchers anticipating a sabbatical or wishing to do research in the United States often learn of opportunities through speaking or corresponding with colleagues in the same field or by attending professional meetings. Professors may also learn of colleagues with similar research interests through former students who are studying in the US, from American faculty or administrators visiting in their country, or from papers in scholarly journals. Sometimes scholars and researchers negotiate directly with a department or research center. In science and technological fields the probability of arranging a research sabbatical in the United State is higher than for the humanities, social sciences, and the performing arts.

Vocabulary Notes

faculty n. (AmE)   профессорско-преподавательский состав

postdoctoral experience   здесь стажировка для докторантов

tenure n. штатная профессорская должность  

sabbatical  n. годичный отпуск

USIA United States Information Agency

Comprehension Check

1. What is the necessary condition for taking up an invitation position at the US Universities?

2. Who usually occupies the position of department chair at the US Universities?

3. What do faculty titles denote? What are the faculty titles?

4. How much time does it take to gain tenure under the current system of promotion? What is one of the most  important consideration? When is  tenure recommended for an Assistant Professor?

5. What does US educational philosophy stress?

6. What sources are grants obtained from by foreign researchers?

7. In what fields is the probability of arranging a research sabbatical higher in comparison with the humanities and social sciences?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 1

Key Terms and Collocations

(US universities: graduate school, research programs)

Graduate School

 

admit  to graduate school     принимать в аспирантуру

admission n.     приём,  набор

apply for admission  (to graduate school)     подать заявление о приеме (в аспирантуру)

enrol(l) (in, for)v      зачислять; записываться, зачисляться

e.g. She decided to enroll in a history course

enro(l)lment n.     зачисление; общее число учащихся

e.g. This course has a very high enrollment.

entry/admission requirements     требования к поступающим в аспирантуру

graduate applicant     поступающий в аспирантуру

graduate student     магистрант, аспирант

graduate school     аспирантура, включает магистерские и аспирантские  программы

cf. postgraduate programme course; postgraduate student (Br.E)

master student     магистрант

Ph.D./doctoral student      аспирант

Master’s thesis      магистерская диссертация

сf. Master’s dissertation (Br.E)

doctoral/ Ph.D. dissertation     докторская диссертация

сf. PhD thesis (Br.E)

work toward one’s Ph.D. dissertation/Master’s thesis     работать над магистерской/ докторской диссертацией

note: doctoral/ Ph. D. degree     примерный аналог степени кандидата наук в России.

defend one’s Master’s thesis /Ph.D. dissertation     защищать магистерскую/докторскую диссертацию.

M.S. thesis/Ph.D. dissertation defense     защита магистерской (со степенью магистра точных/естественных наук) / докторской диссертации

degree candidate     соискатель степени

Ph.D. candidate     соискатель степени доктора философии

candidacy for degree     соискательство степени

dissertation proposal     примерный аналог русск. «обоснование темы диссертации»

dissertation topic     тема диссертации

research topic     тема научного исследования

abstract of the dissertation     реферат диссертации; примерный аналог русск. «автореферат диссертации»

dissertation committee     диссертационный совет

dissertation committee chair     председатель диссертационного совета

University Department

faculty n.     профессорско-преподавательский состав

head a department      возглавлять кафедру

department chair      заведующий кафедрой

teaching assistant (TA)     преподаватель-ассистент (временная должность, которую занимает аспирант)

lecturer/instructor      преподаватель

Assistant Professor      первая ступень профессорской должности, которую, как правило, занимает в течение  5–7 лет преподаватель, защитивший докторскую диссертацию (Ph.D. dissertation), но не получивший еще штатной должности (tenure); следующая ступень-Associate Professor, примерный аналог русск. «доцент»; (full) Professor     профессор, высшая профессорская должность

tenure n.     пребывание (в должности); штатная должность профессора, которая предоставляется после 5–7 лет «испытательного срока» и которую занимают до ухода на пенсию

gain tenure     получить штатную должность профессора

recommend tenure (for an Assistant Professor)     рекомендовать к избранию на штатную должность

work toward tenure      заниматься преподавательской и научной деятельностью с целью получения штатной должности

grant tenure     назначить на штатную должность  профессора

major department     кафедра, на которой аспирант выполняет исследовательскую работу; примерный аналог. pусск. «выпускающая кафедра»

postdoctoral research     примерный аналог русск. «докторантура»

Grants

grant (for, to)n

e.g. We received a grant to attend the conference

allocate/award /give/provide a grant     выделять грант

obtain/receive a grant     получить грант

fund a grant     финансировать грант

apply for a grant     сделать заявку на получение гранта

grant application/proposal     заявка на получение гранта

review a grant proposal     рассматривать заявку на грант

complete a grant     завершить работу по гранту

grant for research/research grant     грант на проведение исследовательской работы

funding for research     финансирование исследовательской работы (e.g. по гранту)

research plan     план исследовательской работы (e.g. по гранту)

support grant     грант, поддерживающий участие в каком-либо проекте (e.g., грант на участие в международной конференции)

travel grant     грант на поездку

grant-in aid     дотация, субсидия, денежное пособие

fellowship  1) стипендия, выплачиваемая аспирантам и лицам, окончившим университет и ведущим при нем научно-исследовательскую работу (UK, US); 2) членство (в каком-либо обществе, профессиональной ассоциации).

assistantship     финансовая поддержка, оказываемая аспирантам в виде предоставления им в университете оплачиваемой должности преподавателя или исследователя, обычно на неполный рабочий день. 

principal investigator (for research grant)     ответственный исполнитель по исследовательскому гранту

be supported by a grant (from)     финансироваться грантом

e.g. This work is supported by a grant from Russian Fund for Basic Research annual grant report     ежегодный отчет по гранту

Visiting Professorship

visiting professor/scholar     профессор/ученый, приглашенный на работу в университет, как правило, на учебный год

invitation position     вакансия/должность профессора/ученого, приглашаемого университетом

scholar n.    ученый, в основном, в области гуманитарных наук

Sabbatical

sabbatical (year)     годичный отпуск, предоставляемый преподавателю университета для  стажировки по его / ее области специализации; первоначально термин употреблялся для обозначения отпуска, предоставляемого каждые семь лет. На практике термин употребляется для обозначения любого годичного отпуска

research sabbatical     научный годичный отпуск

be on a sabbatical     быть в годичном отпуске

Publications

abstract n.     аннотация к научной статье; тезисы доклада на конференцию

extended abstract     расширенные тезисы доклада на конференцию (одна и более страниц)

Abstract Book     сборник тезисов докладов конференции

proceedings     труды, записки (научного общества)

e.g. Proceedings of the  Annual International Conference on Semiconductor Devices

Book of Proceedings     труды конференции (издание)

proceedings manuscript     рукопись, представляемая для публикации в трудах конференции 

transactions     труды, протоколы (научного общества)

e.g.IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control / Mechatronics / Knowledge and Data Engineering/Software Engineering/Wireless Communication/Parallel and Distributed Systems

publication record     список научных публикаций.

e.g. The emphasis is on research and publication record.

best paper award     награда за лучший доклад на конференцию (e.g. вручаемая аспиранту по представлении материалов доклада, может включать грант на поездку на конференцию)

pre-print n.     часть книги или статьи сборника, опубликованная до выхода в  свет всей книги

off-print n.     отдельный оттиск (статьи и т.п.); отдельно изданная небольшим тиражом научная статья, которую издательство научного журнала присылает автору

 

Appendix 2

 

Entering NSTU Graduate School

 

Research Work (part of a sample answer)

 

I received my Engineer’s degree in Electrical Engineering/ Computer Science/Mechanical Engineering…from Novosibirsk State Technical University in 2004. My field of specialization was Thermal Power Stations/Information Technologies/Materials Science… Some  of my gtoupmates and I attended a research seminar on… My research topic was…As a result of our work, we presented a number of papers at NSTU conferences held annually. The titles of my papers are… The abstracts of these papers were published in the Abstract Book of the NSTU Conference “Science. Technology. Innovation”.

Graduate applicants are often asked why they have chosen a research program. For me it was a logical step. I would like to continue the research work on… I started to do some years ago. Besides, the department staff recommended me to go on with my studies within the graduate program.

The staff of the Department of Thermal Power Stations/Applied Mathematics/Materials Science… I am planning to join as a graduate student is engaged in active research in various fields of science. These are…

Graduate students do research und