Название: Английский язык - Методические указания (Бельская Г. А)
4.1. Before reading. Discuss the answers
Some Russians think that the main food of English people is porridge. What do the British eat, in fact?
Can you give the typical menu of the British?
4.2. Read and translate the text
Food in History of Britain
At one time, English food did not vary greatly, except between classes. By this I mean that people of a certain class tended to eat similar things, but their food would be very different from that of another class. Long ago, rich people ate mostly meat as vegetables were considered to be fit only for peasants and animals. As a consequence, the poorer classes often had a healthier diet and much better teeth than their lords and masters. Meat was supplemented with bread: white for the rich and coarser, brown bread for the lower classes. As the bread was often baked directly on hot ashes in an oven, the bottom of the loaf would probably be burnt and dirty, so the loaf would be cut horizontally before being served to the rich people, the bottom half being used as a plate and only the top part eaten. After the meal, this dirty lower half would be given to servants, beggars, etc. From this we get the common expression the upper crust denoting richer people.
Generally, the ordinary water was unfit for drinking so people would drink weak alcoholic beers and ales, or wines from abroad if they could afford them.
Of course, there were frequent times of famine when the harvests would fail due to bad weather or pests and diseases in the crops1. Then the poorer people would have very little to eat at all. Before the days of refrigeration and modern storage, food would be seasonal. Many of the farm animals would be killed before winter as there would be no fodder2 for them when the grass was not growing. The meat from these would be salted or pickled in vinegar and stored in barrels for later use. Sailors going on long voyages would subsists for months on salted beef and hard biscuits. Meat would therefore be in short supply during the winter and early spring months and so more fish and birds would be eaten.
To provide these, many big houses had fish ponds and dove-cotes3. Ice would be cut from the ponds and lakes when they were frozen and stored in specially insulated buildings for use when the weather was hotter, but again, only the rich would have these. Poor people would have to make do with stored root vegetables and, perhaps some salted or smoked meat or fish, such as bacon. Obviously, people who lived near the sea would eat more fish and seafood, including seaweed.
Once England became a great maritime power, foods from far distant countries became more available, particularly food from parts of the Empire, such as spiced and curried dishes from India.
Notes to the text:
crops – зерновые культуры;
fodder – корм для скота;
dove-cotes – голубятня.
4.3. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and phrases
5. Comprehension checking
5.1. Complete the sentences with information from the text
Long ago rich people ate mostly meat as …
The ordinary water was unfit for drinking so …
Before the days of refrigeration …
Meat would therefore be in short supply …
Once England became a great maritime power …
5.2. Read the sentences. Choose the true statements
Long ago rich people ate mostly vegetables as meat was considered to be unfit for them.
The ordinary water was unfit for drinking so people would drink tea and coffee.
Before the days of refrigeration and modern storage food would be seasonal.
Many of the farm animals would be killed in the middle of summer.
The rich would cut ice from the ponds and lakes and use it for freezing and storing birds and fish.
Poor people would have to make do with stored root vegetables and some salted or smoked meat or fish.
5.3. Find in the text answers to the following questions
Why did the poorer classes have a healthier diet and much better teeth than their lords and masters?
What is the history of the common expression ‘the upper crust’?
What did people drink if the ordinary water was unfit for drinking?
Why would food be seasonal?
How did they store meat?
Did they use ice for keeping food fresh?
What seafood did they eat?
6. Making conversation
6.1. Look through the text once more and find facts:
a) which are common both for Great Britain and Russia;
b) which are characteristic only to Great Britain.
6.2. Comment on the English proverbs.
What Russian proverbs with similar meanings do you know?
1. Before you make a friend eat a bushel of salt with him.
2. All bread is not baked in one oven.
3. Better an egg today than a hen tomorrow.
7.1. Write down titles to each part of the text to make a plan
7.2. Write down 2-3 sentences to each point of your plan to make a short story. Read your stories to the group
8. Supplementary reading
8.1. Skim the text to understand what it is about
People in Britain are more likely to eat fast food than go out to eat in a posh1 restaurant. A hamburger and french fries is the most popular fast food meal in Britain. But not all fast food is American. Kebab Houses, often run by Greek or Turkish Cypriots, are also very popular.
People spend less time cooking now. An increasing number of people eat convenience food in the evening. Convenience meals are already cooked – all you have to do is heat them up in the microwave.
Notes to the text:
1) posh adj – дорогой, «крутой»
Guess the meaning of the underlined words and phrases.
Read and translate the recipe. Use your dictionary to check any word you don’t know.
Peel and chop the apples.
Mix together the apples, raisins, sultanas, milk, and sugar.
Mix together the flour and butter (softened) in another bowl.
Add the fruit mixture and the egg and mix very well.
Put into a buttered 20-centimetre square cake tin. Put a little white sugar on the top.
Cook in the oven at 170 ºC (Gas Mark 3) for 1 hour 45 minutes.
Serve hot or cold with fresh cream.
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